- and provided opportunities for civilian participation in the defense program. At the beginning of 1943 ten million volunteers were enrolled in civilian defense programs. Eventually more than twelve million volunteers participated.
- sustained national morale
- made plans for the protection of life and property in case of air raids
- On May 20, 1941 President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the Office of Civilian Defense within the Office of Emergency Management. This office coordinated federal, state, and local efforts in all defense undertakings